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Treetop is a Ruby-based parsing extension that uses Parsing Expression Grammars (PEGs) to define syntax rules. It allows developers to implement complex language parsers without the need for external tools or generators by compiling PEGs into recursive-descent parsers usable from within Ruby code. Treetop's grammar rules resemble regular expressions and can be composed hierarchically, making it easier to express complex grammars concisely while remaining readable. This feature helps in creating parsers for domain-specific languages (DSLs) or data formats directly in the host language without depending on separate compiler-compiler tools like Yacc or Bison.

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